At the outset, the literary reformers met with impassioned but mostly futile opposition from classical literati such as the renowned translator Lin Shuwho would largely give up the battle within a few years.
Terminology[ edit ] The significance of the prefix "post-" in "postcolonial" is a matter of contention. It is difficult to determine when colonialism begins and ends, and therefore to agree that "postcolonial" designates an era "after" colonialism has ended. Spanish and Portuguese expansion begins in the 15th century; BritishFrenchDutch and German colonization unfold from between the 16th and 18th centuries until the independence movements of Asia, Africa and the Caribbean in the mid-twentieth century.
It is also difficult to determine the postcolonial status of settler colonies such as Australia and Canadaor that of pre-colonial-era colonies such as Ireland. Even though the term included British literature, it was most commonly used for writing in English produced in British colonies.
Scholars of commonwealth literature used the term to designate writing in English that dealt with colonialism's legacy.
They advocated for its inclusion in literary curricula, hitherto dominated by the British canon. However, the succeeding generation of postcolonial critics, many of whom belonged to the post-structuralist philosophical tradition, took issue with the Commonwealth label for separating non-British writing from "English" literature produced in England.
The term "colonial" and "postcolonial" continue to be used for writing emerging during and after colonial rule respectively. Arguments in favor of the hyphen suggest that the term "postcolonial" dilutes differences between colonial histories in different parts of the world and that it homogenizes colonial societies.
Postcolonial fiction writers deal with the traditional colonial discourseeither by modifying or by subverting it, or both. He pioneered the branch of postcolonial criticism called colonial discourse analysis.
Language and literature were factors in consolidating this sense of national identity to resist the impact of colonialism. With the advent of the printing pressnewspapers and magazines helped people across geographical barriers identify with a shared national community.
This idea of the nation as a homogeneous imagined community connected across geographical barriers through the medium of language became the model for the modern nation. As depicted in Salman Rushdie's novels for example, the homogeneous nation was built on European models by the exclusion of marginalized voices.
Frantz Omar Fanon —a Martinique -born Afro-Caribbean psychiatristphilosopherrevolutionaryand writer, was one of the proponents of the movement.
His works are influential in the fields of postcolonial studiescritical theoryand Marxism. However, Garvey was unique in advancing a Pan-African philosophy to inspire a global mass movement and economic empowerment focusing on Africa.
The philosophy came to be known as Garveyism. Against advocates of literature that promoted African racial solidarity in accordance with negritude principles, Frantz Fanon argued for a national literature aimed at achieving national liberation.
Rather, he argued that black cultural forms—including literature—were diasporic and transnational formations born out of the common historical and geographical effects of transatlantic slavery.Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
It originates from the works of 19th century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.. Marxism uses a methodology, now known as historical materialism, to analyze and critique. This influential collection explores the pivotal texts and topics in the Marxist tradition.
Ranging over questions of social theory, political theory, moral philosophy and literary criticism, it looks at the thought of Marx and Trotsky, Luxemburg, Lenin and Althusser.
Included here are Geras’s 4/5(2). Marxism Marxism started in its early years as an economic and sociopolitical worldview and method of socioeconomic inquiry centered upon a materialist interpretation of history, a dialectical view of social change, and an analysis–critique of the .
Postcolonial literature is the literature by people from formerly colonized countries. It exists on all continents except Antarctica. Postcolonial literature often addresses the problems and consequences of the decolonization of a country, especially questions relating to the political and cultural independence of formerly subjugated people, and themes such as racialism and colonialism.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec Since the advent of Marxism, literary critics have analyzed works in attempts to extract elements of the political philosophy. As critic Terry Eagleton asserts, the aim of “Marxist criticism is to explain the literary work more fully; and this means a sensitive attention to its forms, styles and meanings.
Sep 20, · By Norman alphabetnyc.com Verso: This influential collection explores the pivotal texts and topics in the Marxist tradition. Ranging over questions of social theory, political theory, moral philosophy and literary criticism, it looks at the thought of Marx and Trotsky, Luxemburg, Lenin and Althusser.