Hide After 17 years of rising to utterly dominate the U.
Scientific studies show fluoridation's claimed benefits are in dispute Tooth decay has declined world-wide regardless of fluoridation status Many of the abstracts below are from staunch fluoride proponents in the dental community.
While the list below is not exhaustive, several clear messages emerge: The early fluoridation studies which purported to show a benefit to teeth actually reflected a delay in the onset of the caries process by about one year. Information on Canadian tooth decay rates are in caries3.
The links have been provided below as well. In the low-fluoride area, Multiple linear regression analysis showed that DMFT and DMFS were significantly higher in children with a lower socioeconomic status and in those who consumed sweets at least once a day, with the DMFS significantly associated also with the area of residence.
DT and FT scores were higher in the high- and low-fluoride areas, respectively. No evidence of fluorosis was reported in Our results substantiate the difficulties in defining universal guidelines for the fluoridation or defluoridation of drinking water and the need for an epidemiological approach to the decision as to fluoridate and defluoridate the water supply.
Dental caries, Fluorosis, Italy, Public health dentistry, Water fluoridation. The caries prevalence in a multi-stage probability sample of 18, children representative of all French children years of age was studied in and compared with the results of a similar survey made in A significant decline in dental caries in France became evident.
This decline, observed in primary as well as in permanent teeth, was of variable magnitude among the different age groups. At the age of 6, Inmore caries-affected teeth or surfaces were filled, whereas fewer caries-affected teeth or surfaces were untreated. Females and children living in rural areas had a higher caries prevalence in both surveys.
Pit-and-fissure lesions were the predominant caries types. Dental fluorosis was very uncommon; The sale of fluoridated dentifrices and the use of fluoride tablets and sugar substitutes increased during the period from to In this study in oral epidemiology, officially collected statistics are presented which show that, 15 yr after fluoridation commenced in Auckland, New Zealand, there was still a significant correlation between dental health of children and their social class.
They also show that treatment levels have continued to decline in both fluoridated and unfluoridated areas, and are related to social class factors rather than to the presence or absence of water fluoridation.
In the unfluoridated areas all the children, and in the fluoridated areas only selected children, had received regular topical fluoride treatments. In both areas the use of fluoride tooth-pastes and oral hygiene had been encouraged.
When the socioeconomic variable is allowed for, child dental health appears to be better in the unfluoridated areas.
Officially collected statistics are presented for the six main population areas showing: These suggest that child dental decay differences are not closely related to the presence or absence of water fluoridation.
Official census information on the above and other communities suggests that dental health differences could be related to demographic, especially socio- economic, factors.
A dentist and an environmental scientist examine the Hastings fluoridation experiment. The official Information Act has made available for public perusal archives of government departments. These and other sources reveal information not in agreement with the published version of the trial.
The claimed reductions in dental decay were brought about partly if not mainly by a change in diagnostic procedure following the introduction of fluoridation. A reduction in decay occurred in non-fluoridated places during the trial.
From the above considerations it seems clear that the Hastings fluoridation study did not, as it was purported to do, demonstrate the effectiveness of water fluoridation in reducing dental decay in a typical New Zealand population.
The reported reductions were at least partly, if not wholly, the result of factors other than fluoridation. Today proponents of fluoridation will concede that there were other factors operating to cause the reductions, over and above any fluoridation effect. But that fact, although known to those responsible for the study, was never reported in official and scientific published reports on it.
The study was, it seems, more a public relations exercise than a scientific one.Compare and contrast the economic factors responsible for the decline of Spain with the economic factors responsible for the decline of the Dutch Republic by the end of the seventeenth century.
Compare and contrast the social and economic organization of the Ottomans and Safavids. social - early times dominated by warrior aristocracies, warriors shared power w/ absolutist monarchs, strength of court & traditional peasant defenses kept demands of warrior elite in check, women subordinate w/ little power except if wife/concubine of.
Both the Roman Republic and Roman Empire had periods of instability which ultimately caused their demise. Interestingly, each lasted for almost the same amount of time, so it would be difficult to.
Donald Trump made crime fighting an important focus of his campaign for president, and he cited it again during his January inaugural alphabetnyc.com the administration takes steps to address violence in American communities, here are five facts about crime in the United States..
1Violent crime in the U.S. has fallen sharply over the past quarter century.
Compare and Contrast the decline and outcomes of Han China and the Roman Empire Essay. Both the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty declined gradually, mostly due to multiple invasions by foreign people - Compare and Contrast the decline and outcomes of Han China and the Roman Empire Essay introduction.
However, while the Roman Empire showed a decrease in population, Han population .
The Advance-Decline Line (AD Line) is a breadth indicator based on Net Advances, which is the number of advancing stocks less the number of declining stocks.