Beer and wine were standard parts of military rations for centuries and were treated as both stimulants and medication. A change in military use of alcohol occurred when rum began to replace beer and wine in both the British Army and Navy in the 18th century.
Share via Email A heel, but still a hero If I were to try to list all the things that I think matter about this book it might well result in a list as long as the catalogue of the ships.
Achilles does not fit modern sensibilities. He is a killer, arguably a rapist, certainly a pillager.
He is sulky, high-strung and oh boy, is he temperamental. He can be pitiless — actively enjoying the iron in his heart — and he can be murderously cruel.
Yet there is still something fundamental about him to which we can all relate, even if it is also something particularly hard to rationalise and explain.
He is faster, sharper, bigger, brighter and more important than other men. He is more beautiful. He rides on deeper emotional currents when Achilles is upset, he is seriously upset.
He is semi-divine and wholly precious. Other men cannot even aspire to be like him. At his most resplendent, men cannot even bear to look at him. He is just above and beyond. Achilles in short, is a hero and taps into a need that most of us have to worship and admire. I was recently listening to a very good Stanford lecture about the Iliad by Marsh McCallwhere the genial professor suggests that baseball and American football players play a similar role in modern society.
There is also a fantastic video of kids meeting their football idolsviewed more than 69m times on social media, which gives an idea of how primal and overpowering such reverence can be.
I also like to think of myself as rational and keen to judge on actual merit and not mythology. One of the many laments I could relate to, for instance, following the recent loss of David Bowie was the simple expression of incredulity that death could catch even him, that someone who had seemed so much bigger than life should actually have to go.
This human need to venerate was something Homer understood and exploited to glorious effect in the Iliad. Most obviously, and brilliantly, he does this by keeping Achilles off the scene. In the first line of the Iliad, Homer may ask the muses to sing about the wrath of Achilles — but the man himself appears in the poem surprisingly rarely.
Homer is careful to give him mainly the big moments — the beginning, the climax, and a few crucial turning points.
There are books and books in which he is barely mentioned. But, of course, all the time he is off the scene, his presence only grows.
Every other feat of arms, every brutal kill, every spear cast invokes a comparison to the absent hero — and is inevitably found wanting. We know that, even at his most terrible and shining, Hector would not have a hope against Achilles.
We know, saddest of all, that Patroclus is but a shadow of his great friend, the armour he has borrowed from him is an all but empty shell, and that where Achilles would sweep all before him, he is doomed to fall.
All the killing, all the struggle, all the pain — all is made futile because we know that if Achilles were on the scene it would turn out differently.alphabetnyc.com is a platform for academics to share research papers. Achilles is a fascinating character to consider by the 21st century standards of what constitutes a hero.
He is clearly presented as something of a superhero with amazing strength and as somebody. To the Greeks, Achilles was the hero, since he was a demigod, a highly skilled and proficient warrior and the central character of the Iliad and because he was the best fighter for the Greek’s side.
Is Really Achilles a Hero? The Iliad is not a work that gives a mere account of historic facts and Achilles is one of these persons that play a primary role in the plot of Iliad; as Homer puts it in the first lines of this work, the anger (mênin) of Achilles, effect of Agamemnon’s behavior.
Also, the acceptance of Agamemnon’s gifts to. However, the ancient Greeks were first storytellers and later story writers, and Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey are our earliest clear picture of wartime injuries and their treatment.
Homer’s limitations as a medical resource are, however, considerable. Studies in Classical History and Society Meyer Reinhold OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Studies in Classical History and.